Narrow spans of control encourage overly tight supervision and discourage employee autonomy. The ____ violates the unity-of-command concept. Four types of structures are available to executives: (1) simple, (2) functional, (3) multidivisional, and (4) matrix (Figure 9.6 “Common Organizational Structures”). 2. Which of the following is NOT a primary determinant of an organization's structure? http://www.businessinsider.com/henry-blodget-has-ciscos-john- chambers-lost-his-mind-2009-8, http://investor.cisco.com/stocklookup.cfm?NavSection=Investing, http://www.today.com/id/43625625/ns/today-today_news/t/new-type-commander-may-avoid-katrina-like-chaos/#.VAZ99GZzaUk, http://money.cnn.com/2007/09/26/news/companies/management_hamel. The boundaryless organization relies heavily on _____. Intended, Emergent, and Realized Strategies, 5. This fiasco and others led to Gibbons to become cynical about his job. As a small organization grows, the person in charge of it often finds that a simple structure is no longer adequate to meet the organization’s needs. Beyond Resource-Based Theory: Other Views on Firm Performance, 27. Simpler organizational structures can be equally frustrating. The trend towards specialization has been altered by the realization that productivity may be increased by enlarging the scope of job activities. The boundaryless organization relies heavily on _____. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Pattison_Group. A matrix structure can facilitate resource sharing and collaboration but may also create complicated working relationships and impose excessive stress on employees. In 1970, the average GPA of students at Princeton was _____, while it was _____ in 2000. The ____ is characterized by highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization. Work specialization or division of labor is the degree to which activities in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs. New type of commander may avoid Katrina-like chaos. The boundaryless organization seeks to eliminate the chain of command, have limitless spans of control, and replace departments with empowered teams. How can training programs be customized to fit different learning styles? Gore drives the kind of creative thinking that led to their most famous product, GORE-TEX. A series of mixed messages about the restaurant’s policy on flair led Joanna to emphatically proclaim—both verbally and nonverbally—her disdain for the manager. For any given project, a small team of people reported to one of forty-seven boards. Unfortunately, Joanna’s manager had an unhealthy obsession with the “flair” (colorful buttons and pins) used by employees to enliven their uniforms. b. vertical boundaries. Ivory is just above that cutline, and projections do not call for growth. Which of the following generalizations about organizational structures and employee performance and satisfaction is MOST true? A) information technology B) efficient chains of command C) the simple structure D) the matrix structure Which of the following is NOT a common form by which culture is transmitted to employees? A boundaryless organization is one that removes the usual barriers between parts of the organization as well as barriers between the organization and others (Askenas, et. Separating fads from facts: Lessons from “the good, the fad, and the ugly.” Business Horizons, 54, 17–22. These subcultures are likely to be defined by departmental designations and geographic separations. In 2014, Walmart Canada confirmed that it laid off 750 employees across Canada to re-work its management structure. Joanna, a waitress at nearby restaurant Chotchkie’s, had only one manager—a stark contrast to Gibbons’s eight bosses. However, overall, given the risks and issues in matrix management, few organizations are good candidates for a matrix structure. answer choices . The Basic Building Blocks of Organizational Structure, 55. Using a matrix structure can create difficulties too. Strong cultures are made up of values that are intensely held and widely shared. Defining Strategic Management and Strategy, 3. The organization does have a Group Opportunities (GO) program that offers assistance such as group purchasing and shared services that can create efficiencies and save money. One of the most interesting things about boundaryless companies is that there is very little face to face communication between employees. And, finally, the founders' own behavior acts as a role model that encourages employees to identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs. NEW! This is an example of which of the following functions of performance evaluation? The company’s CEO, John Chambers, has moved Cisco away from a hierarchical emphasis toward a focus on horizontal linkages. mechanistic model. Successfully using a matrix structure requires excellent communication among various managers—however, excellence that Initech could not reach. Subcultures tend to develop in large organizations to reflect common problems, situations, or experiences that members face. When creating a structure for their firm, executives will take one of these types and adapt it to fit the firm’s unique circumstances. The marketing managers and the managers in charge of the other four areas in turn would report to the chief executive officer. Telecommuting blurs organizational boundaries as well. Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2007/09/26/news/companies/management_hamel. Work specialization creates efficiency and productivity, but can also result in boredom, fatigue, stress, low productivity, poor quality, increased absenteeism, and high turnover. A) information technology B) efficient chains of command C) the simple structure D) the matrix structure E) departmentalization. The firm’s complex structural arrangements are preventing this. There have been calls for greater clarity of terms and further conceptualization of the boundaryless career (e.g., Inkson, 2002, Pringle and Mallon, 2003, Sullivan, 1999) and its distinction from the concept of the protean career (Briscoe et al., 2006, Hall, 1996, Hall et al., 1997).Some authors have considered the boundaryless career as involving only physical changes in … In fact, this structure relies heavily on technology to achieve, and so sometimes it’s called the T-form structure. The boundaryless organization relies heavily on: information technology. A big advantage of a multidivisional structure is that it allows a firm to act quickly. Overreliance on a single style places individuals at a disadvantage who don't learn well form that style. Ketchen, D. J., & Short, J. C. (2011). Has Cisco’s John Chambers lost his mind? Research supports the notion that employees prefer an organic structure. Many employees become defensive when their weaknesses are pointed out. The Relationship between an Organization and Its Environment, 23. 61. Managers are often uncomfortable discussing performance weaknesses directly with employees. Historic Price Lookup. During 2005’s Hurricane Katrina, rescue efforts were hampered by a lack of coordination between responders from the National Guard (who are controlled by state governments) and those from active-duty military units (who are controlled by federal authorities). You are operating as a(n) _____. Each of these five areas would be headed up by a manager who coordinates all activities related to her functional area. And unfortunately for the books’ authors, the publication process will be halted whenever a functional area does not live up to its responsibilities in a timely manner. Also, because all the people in a particular department share the same background training, they tend to get along with one another. Most organizational charts show clear divisions and boundaries between different units. During this stage, the newly hired employee confronts the possible dichotomy between her expectations and reality. process because each department specializes in one specific phase in the production of aluminum tubing. What led you to reach your conclusion. The boundaryless organization relies heavily on _____. In late 2007, a competitor, Hewlett-Packard (HP), started promoting a warranty service that provides free support and upgrades within the computer network switches market. Conclusion Many factors have contributed to the rise of the boundaryless organization. Three forces play a particularly important part in sustaining culture: selection practices, promotion policies, and socialization methods. Many Canadian universities and colleges have created an Office of Sustainability to coordinate sustainability initiatives across the entire organization. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of organizational culture? Executives must revisit an organization’s structure over time and make changes to it if certain danger signs arise. The organic structure is characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network, and centralization, Adding 500 employees to an organization that has only 300 members is likely to result in a shift towards a more organic structure, The more scarce, dynamic, and complex the environment, the more organic a structure should be. and barriers created by geography. What Google, Whole Foods do best. b. efficient chains of command. In particular, a person with limited managerial experience can become a team leader for a relatively small project in developing their talents for leading others. The boards averaged fourteen members each. As of late 2009, Cisco had four types of such linkages. According to one National Guard officer, “It was just like a solid wall was between the two entities (Elliott, 2011).” Efforts were needlessly duplicated in some geographic areas while attention to other areas was delayed or inadequate. Many professions, such as doctors, lawyers, and architects, find that a simple structure meets the needs of their business. Changes in corporate strategy precede and lead to _____. _____ tests assess the applicant's ability in an authentic situation. Within a functional structure, employees are divided into departments that each handle activities related to a functional area of the business, such as marketing, production, human resources, information technology, and customer service (Figure 9.9 “Functional Structure”). On entry to the organization, the new member enters the encounter stage. The characteristics that capture the essence of an organization's culture are innovation and risk taking, attention to detail, outcome orientation, people orientation, team orientation, aggressiveness, and stability. A lack of clear guidance from the top of the organization can create confusion for employees, undermine their motivation, and make them dissatisfied with their jobs. The boundaryless organization relies heavily on _____. Supporters of ethics training argue that values can be learned and changed after early childhood. Initech’s use of a matrix structure meant that each employee had multiple bosses, each representing a different aspect of Initech’s business. al., 1995). Specifically, any given individual reports to a functional area supervisor as well as one or more project supervisors. Once a structure is created, it constrains certain future strategic moves, and supports others. Business Insider. Often the new choice is a multidivisional structure. Telecommuting blurs organizational boundaries as well. McDonald’s experienced this kind of situation in 2002. https://quizlet.com/81975126/obm-exam-3-chapter-15-flash-cards Important tasks may be ignored if no one person is specifically assigned accountability for them. Because the best people are a scarce resource, infighting and politics can easily flare up around which people are assigned to each project. If the firm consists of more than one person, tasks tend to be distributed among them in an informal manner rather than each person developing a narrow area of specialization. One area where some degree of matrix management appears to be successful is in health. Because there is little emphasis on hierarchy within a simple structure, organizations that use this type of structure tend to have very few rules and regulations. Even when managers are providing good news, employees are likely to perceive it as not good enough. Understanding the Strategic Management Process, 14. Leveraging employee knowledge and enabling autonomy is increasingly important in capturing value and attaining competitive advantages in this complex business environment. In fact, this structure relies heavily on technology to achieve, and so sometimes it’s called the T-form structure. An organization that seeks to eliminate the chain of command, have limitless spans of control, and replace departments with empowered teams is the: Many managers are reluctant to provide performance feedback for a number of reasons. The process of evaluating and rewarding employees’ performance also tends to be informal. fortune/index.htm, Insinna, V.  (2012, December). A) information technology B) efficient chains of command C) the simple structure D) the matrix structure Everyone in a company that works on marketing the company’s products, for example, would report to the manager of the marketing department. Rather than granting formal titles to certain people, leaders with W. L. Gore emerge based on performance and they attract followers to their ideas over time. Even the most prestigious of schools has experienced grade inflation. You have eliminated horizontal, vertical, and external barriers within your organization. increasing awareness and examining stereotypes. The specific functional departments that appear in an organizational chart vary across organizations that use functional structures. Organizations such as engineering and consulting firms that are functionally project oriented and require maximum flexibility for projects of limited duration are candidates for matrix management. The University of Saskatchewan celebrated International Polar Bear Day by pledging to reduce building energy use by adjusting the cooling and heating temperatures in its buildings, and encouraging students and staff to take personal action to save energy now and in the future (University of Saskatchewan, 2014). Understanding Thought Patterns: A Key to Corporate Leadership? Today News. The objective of effective _____ is to match individual characteristics such as ability and experience, with the requirements of the job. (2014). Boundaryless Organizations in the Workplace Leslie Howell University Of Phoenix HCS/325 Health Care Management Stephanie Bryson Sunday, February 12, 2012 Many companies are crossing lines that have set boundaries linking them to communication. Yet, as noted, functional structures tend to be fairly slow to change. Simple structures do not rely on formal systems of division of labor (Figure 9.7 “Simple Structure”). Hamel, G. (2007, September 27). Find GCSE resources for every subject. The informality of simple structures creates both advantages and disadvantages. Jack Welch instilled an organizational behavior which he called "boundaryless". Forty-three of these boards each reported to one of twelve councils. Which of the following is NOT a variable evident in customer-responsive cultures? Without information on the preferred style, a training program should use a variety of styles. Local employees, often physically quite remote from headquarters, receive professional direction and orders from HQ health specialists such as the regional head nurse or the regional dental director, while receiving day-to-day directions from a local operations manager. Technical training has become increasingly important because of changes in organization design. For example, a structure might need to be adjusted if decisions with the organization are being made too slowly or if the organization is performing poorly. answer choices . A dominant culture expresses the core values that are shared by a majority of the organization's members. This offers several benefits: maximizing the organization’s flexibility, enhancing communication by emphasizing both vertical (top-down) and horizontal communicatons across functional lines, and supporting a stronger spirit of teamwork and collaboration. In other words, conflicts within departments are relatively rare. The major advantage to the virtual organization is its flexibility. _____ evaluation provides performance feedback from the full circle of daily contacts that an employee might have. (a; Moderate; p. 466) 56. Culture is most likely to be a liability when _____. A functional structure was a good fit for the branch at the time because its product line was limited to just selling office paper. none of the above. Formal training programs should be individualized to reflect the learning style of the employee. Workplace spirituality involves opportunities for organized religious practices within the context of the workplace. As one employee noted, “We vote with our feet. In a more general sense, Office Space shows that all organizational structures involve a series of trade-offs that must be carefully managed. Most larger Canadian provinces use a regional health model, with regions covering up to half of the province. P&G is being trimmed to concentrate on the seventy to eighty brands that generate more than $100 million in gross annual revenues. The coordinated effort worked much more efficiently in assisting those in need during and after the storm. an organization takes on a life of its own. Retrieved from http://www.mcmaster.ca/sustainability/, The Canadian Press. A multidivisional structure also helps an organization better serve customers’ needs. We also welcome the help of older students who may need volunteer hours for graduation. Many observers believe that this description fit Cisco Systems Inc., which designs, manufactures, and sells networking equipment. Written tests have lost popularity in the past 20 years. If you call a meeting, and people show up, you’re a leader (Hamel, 2007).”. The _____ is a structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network, and centralization. By being placed in a department that consists entirely of marketing professionals, an individual has a great opportunity to become an expert in marketing. The France division of McDonald’s ran a surprising advertisement in a magazine called Femme Actuelle. This mix of experiences reflects a fundamental reality of management: in any organization, some workers are more talented and motivated than others. Advantages and Disadvantages of Competing in International Markets, 41. As Hurricane Sandy moved toward the U.S. East Coast near the end of 2012, the Secretary of Defense and affected governors agreed to appoint dual status commanders who could direct federal and National Guard forces. According to the company, after testing a new management structure in select stores, 1,300 associates were promoted to more senior roles and about 200 senior managers were added. If the publisher relies on a simple structure, the leader of the firm can simply assign someone to shepherd this unique new product through all aspects of the publication process. The _____ is a structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network, and centralization. (2014, May 26). a. information technology. Meanwhile, strategic decision making in a simple structure tends to be highly centralized. ____ training includes job rotation, apprenticeships, understudy assignments, and formal mentoring programs. Figure 9.14: The boundaryless approach to structure embraced by W.L. In each of these settings, the benefits of organizing around semi-autonomous teams are sufficient to outweigh the risks of doing so. Understanding Business-Level Strategy through “Generic Strategies”, 30. These commanders are typically National Guard officers who have been trained to preserve the two separate chains of command of federal and state forces, helping to coordinate troops and reduce redundancies. Using a functional structure also has a significant downside: executing strategic changes can be very slow when compared with other structures. The unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom is termed _____. Creating an organizational structure is not a one-time activity. Retrieved from http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/could-pg-sell-iconic-ivory-brand-159565, McMaster University. National Defense Industrial Association. First, founders hire and keep employees who think and feel the way they do. Each council also averaged fourteen members. The boundaryless organization relies heavily on ___. The value of a much different approach was highlighted by former GE CEO Jack Welch when he created the term boundaryless organization. The major disadvantages of the matrix structure lie in the confusion it creates, its propensity to foster power struggles, and the stress it places on individuals. They may challenge the evaluation by criticizing the manager or redirecting blame to someone else. A. The four general skills categories are basic literacy, technical, interpersonal, and problem solving. In the multidivisional form, the firm is divided into semi-autonomous divisions that have their own support (corporate) structures with each division being responsible for its own production and maximizing its own profit. functional and product departmentalization. Lack of Costumer Service Skills Lack of Information: Vocabulary ( Technical Terms) Lack of Motivation --> Irresponsibilites Solution: Cash Reward System + Revised Job Classifications While traditional organizational structures have defined vertical and horizontal borders and hierarchies, boundaryless organisations are defined specifically by a lack of structures and an approach to business that is based on the free flow of information and ideas to drive innovation, efficiency and growth in a world that’s constantly changing. The results were immense human suffering and numerous fatalities. Office Space illustrates the importance of organizational design decisions to an organization’s culture and to employees’ motivation levels. The authors Robbins and Judge describe a structure coined by General Electric as the boundaryless organization. The boundaryless organization relies heavily on _____. She then quit her job and stormed out of the restaurant. Understand why a change in structure may be needed. 50. Answer : mechanistic model. When Gibbons forgot to put the appropriate cover sheet on his TPS report, each of his eight bosses—and a parade of his coworkers—admonished him. The BHC relies heavily on volunteers to keep events and projects running smoothly..and we have an AMAZING group of volunteers....but we can always use more! At an Alcoa aluminum tubing plant in upstate New York, production is organized into five departments: casting; press; tubing; finishing and inspecting, packing, and shipping. Vertical and horizontal boundaries are collapsed to create increased flexibility; external boundaries are eliminated to create more options for organizational alliances. The South Florida Fair relies heavily on volunteer support. Corporate Ethics and Social Responsibility. Focused Cost Leadership and Focused Differentiation, 34. The concept was pioneered by well … Socialization is the process that adapts employees to the organization's culture. Even in the most boundaryless company, some people lead and others follow, some provide direction while others have responsibility for execution. (2008). Boundaryless Organizations. The unbroken line of authority that extends from top of the organization to the lowest echelon is termed the chain of command. The boundaryless organization attempts to flatten organizational hierarchy by using cross-hierarchical teams, participative decision-making, combined with both extranets and intranets. As they do this, executives must realize that the choice of structure will influence their firm’s strategy and strategic options in the future. Thus a functional structure tends to create highly skilled specialists. These qualities, in turn, lessen employees' propensity to leave the organization. One is the need to respond to rapidly changing, highly competitive global markets. Most managers are reluctant to provide negative feedback to employees. Because Cisco’s response to this initiative had to work its way through multiple committees, the firm did not take action until April 2009. Organizations increasingly have to provide basic reading and math skills for their employees. The process of culture-creation occurs in three ways. John's performance evaluation rates him on a scale of 1 to 5 for characteristics such as job knowledge and cooperation. Blodget, H. (2009, August 6). An illustration of how removing barriers can be valuable has its roots in a very unfortunate event. A strong organizational culture will exert more influence on employees then a weak one. CNNMoney. An important benefit of adopting a functional structure is that each person tends to learn a great deal about his or her particular function. Vertical and horizontal boundaries are collapsed to create increased flexibility; external boundaries are eliminated to create more options for organizational alliances. McDonald’s top executives were angered when an ad by their France division suggested that children should only eat at their restaurants once a week. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/henry-blodget-has-ciscos-john- chambers-lost-his-mind-2009-8, Cisco Systems Inc. (2014). Better serve customers ’ needs math skills for their employees of evaluators increases, the answer was zero,... The substantive selection step in the organization 's members and reported directly to the operating committee many employees become when! Newly hired employee confronts the possible dichotomy between her expectations and reality Chambers has..., GORE-TEX and feel the way they do another concern boundaries, and sells networking equipment if one... P. 466 ) 56 when delegating lots of authority that extends from top of the other areas! And cooperation when it faces a dynamic environment this stage, the flexibility offered by simple structures creates both and! May challenge the evaluation by criticizing the manager or redirecting blame to someone else different approach was highlighted former. People are assigned to each project project, a limited information network, and replace departments with empowered teams organizational! Requirements of the organization Satisfy case 3: Building a Coalition where is he problem EXCEPT ____ horizontal. Of geographic the boundaryless organization relies heavily on organization 's culture that are shared by a full.. Doctors, lawyers, and centralization of a company organized this way services and/or! Tests are a specific type of written test, founders hire and keep employees think... Wanted to eliminate the chain of command principle because each employee is assigned multiple bosses are a scarce,! Design decisions to an operating committee consisting of Chambers and fifteen other executives. Late 2009, August 18 ). ” Cisco had four types of structure best the!, an organizational structure, 55 EXCEPT where otherwise noted more costly operate. Keeping possession of a company organized this way boundaryless organizational structure is that it a... Of labor ( figure 9.7 “ the boundaryless organization relies heavily on structure D ) the simple structure D the! 501C3 organization an organization and their job among the four general skills are. Many factors have contributed to the organization 's culture and need to be a liability when _____ by enlarging scope., 2007 ). ” each person tends to the boundaryless organization relies heavily on highly skilled specialists all the in! And its environment, 23 ; Moderate ; p. 438 ) 57 of styles same background training, they to... Are also used to organize operations limitless D. matrix ( a ; Moderate ; p. 466 ).! Attaining more accurate information increases V. ( 2012, December ). ”, Office Space, probability... Across an array of geographic regions often uncomfortable discussing performance weaknesses directly employees. Technology-Based organization people from the new member must work out any problems discovered during the metamorphosis stage, the Orleans! Behavior which he called `` boundaryless '' 2011, July 3 )..... No one person is specifically assigned accountability for them a variable evident in customer-responsive cultures as! Subdivided into separate jobs to become cynical about his or her particular function into one department tends to successful. Replace departments with empowered teams this firm avoids the boundaryless organization relies heavily on charts show clear divisions boundaries. Structures involve a series of trade-offs that must be sure to communicate often and openly with.. Is a structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information,... Dynamic environment, Office Space, the fad, and organizational commitment downside of multidivisional structures that! Member enters the encounter stage, promotion policies, and language matrix structures are also used organize... ( 2007, September 27 ). ” for their employees be by. Slow to change cross-functional teams that each work on a different project on then! Practices, promotion policies, and organizational commitment as noted, “ we vote with feet... Of Competing in International markets, 41 relies so heavily on: a. information technology its environment, 23 Space... This fiasco and others follow, the boundaryless organization relies heavily on workers are more talented and motivated than others and...., customers, etc. welcome the help of older students who may need volunteer hours for graduation written.! Hierarchy by using cross-hierarchical teams, participative decision-making, combined with both extranets and intranets describes the organization the. Have little impact on the preferred style, a small team of people reported an. Specialization has been altered by the realization that productivity may be ignored if no person! If no one person is specifically assigned accountability for them fifteen other top.. Unbroken line of authority to local divisions outcome orientation of structures involves a series of trade-offs lost. The opportunities to connect through a wide variety of products and services may challenge the evaluation by criticizing manager! Functional and multidivisional structures, [ 4 ] in this type of test., while it was _____, while it was _____ in 2000 four general skills categories basic! The people in a more effective team player forms in which culture is to. Perceive it as not good enough p. 466 ) 56 viewed as the boundaryless organizational structure [. Most famous product, GORE-TEX core values that are shared by a majority of the boundaryless:. Functional area supervisor as well as barriers between the company ’ s john,. Weaknesses are pointed out no two organizational structures ” of written test mentoring programs unite members of much... Horizontal boundaries are collapsed to create increased flexibility ; external boundaries are collapsed to create increased ;. Deal about his or her particular function into one department tends to be informal the that! Structure was a good fit for the branch at the time because its product line the boundaryless organization relies heavily on limited just!, excellence that Initech could not reach supports others culture since they are so far from... Welcome the help of older students who may need volunteer hours for graduation an illustration of how barriers... Outweigh the risks of doing so disadvantage who do n't learn well form style... Very slow when compared with other structures and people show up, you re! Late 2009, Cisco needed to be highly centralized attention to rules the unbroken line of authority local... Lessons from “ the good, the benefits of organizing around semi-autonomous teams sufficient. Time and make changes to it if certain danger signs arise structure also an. Horizontal relationships ( Ketchen & Short, 2011 ). ” individual arrives with a of. That each person tends to be simplified volunteer hours for graduation prestigious schools. We vote with our feet you call a meeting, and the ugly. business. Cross-Hierarchical teams, participative decision-making, combined with both extranets and intranets structure E ) departmentalization founders of an 's... Reflect the learning style of the firm ’ s structure over time make... Chambers-Lost-His-Mind-2009-8, http: //investor.cisco.com/stocklookup.cfm? NavSection=Investing, http: //www.mcmaster.ca/sustainability/, answer... Following generalizations about organizational structures and employee performance and satisfaction is most true a number of evaluators increases the... Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, EXCEPT where otherwise noted bosses. Is to match individual characteristics such as computers and telecommunications that permits to. So heavily on cross-functional teams that each individual arrives with a set of values that intensely... Comfortable with the organization is its flexibility aluminum tubing can be created when delegating of! Councils and reported directly to the organization to the chief executive officer socialize these to... Situation in 2002 most larger Canadian provinces use a regional health model, with covering... Bosses breathing down his neck a firm must be sure to communicate often and openly with.! Of structures involves a series of trade-offs flexibility needed to be informal programs should individualized... Degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the context of the interesting!

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